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18 March 2008 Cardiac C-arm CT: image-based gating
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Image guidance during cardiac interventional procedures (IP) using cardiac C-arm CT systems is desirable for many procedures. Applying the concept of retrospective electrocardiogram gating (ECG) to the acquisition of multiple, ECG-triggered rotational acquisitions using a C-arm system allows the 3D+t reconstruction of the heart. The process of retrospective gating is a crucial component of 3-D reconstruction. The gold-standard in gating is still ECG based. However, the ECG signal does not directly reflect the mechanical situation of the heart. Therefore an alternative gating method, based on the acquired projection data is required. Our goal is to provide an image-based gating (IBG) method without ECG such that already acquired projection data from a multi-sweep acquisition can still be used for reconstruction. We formulate the gating problem as a shortest-path optimization problem. All acquired projection images build a directed graph and the path costs are defined by projection image similarities that are based on image metrics to measure the heart phase similarity. The optimization is additionally regularized to prefer solutions where the path segment of consecutive selected projections acquired along a particular forward or backward C-arm sweep is short. This regularization depends on an estimated average heart rate that is also estimated using an image-based method. First promising results using in-vivo data are presented and compared to standard ECG gating. We conclude that the presented IBG method provides a reliable gating.
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C. Rohkohl, M. Prümmer, R. Fahrig, G. Lauritsch, and J. Hornegger "Cardiac C-arm CT: image-based gating", Proc. SPIE 6913, Medical Imaging 2008: Physics of Medical Imaging, 69131G (18 March 2008);

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