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17 March 2008 A meta-classifier for detecting prostate cancer by quantitative integration of in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging
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Recently, in vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) have emerged as promising new modalities to aid in prostate cancer (CaP) detection. MRI provides anatomic and structural information of the prostate while MRS provides functional data pertaining to biochemical concentrations of metabolites such as creatine, choline and citrate. We have previously presented a hierarchical clustering scheme for CaP detection on in vivo prostate MRS and have recently developed a computer-aided method for CaP detection on in vivo prostate MRI. In this paper we present a novel scheme to develop a meta-classifier to detect CaP in vivo via quantitative integration of multimodal prostate MRS and MRI by use of non-linear dimensionality reduction (NLDR) methods including spectral clustering and locally linear embedding (LLE). Quantitative integration of multimodal image data (MRI and PET) involves the concatenation of image intensities following image registration. However multimodal data integration is non-trivial when the individual modalities include spectral and image intensity data. We propose a data combination solution wherein we project the feature spaces (image intensities and spectral data) associated with each of the modalities into a lower dimensional embedding space via NLDR. NLDR methods preserve the relationships between the objects in the original high dimensional space when projecting them into the reduced low dimensional space. Since the original spectral and image intensity data are divorced from their original physical meaning in the reduced dimensional space, data at the same spatial location can be integrated by concatenating the respective embedding vectors. Unsupervised consensus clustering is then used to partition objects into different classes in the combined MRS and MRI embedding space. Quantitative results of our multimodal computer-aided diagnosis scheme on 16 sets of patient data obtained from the ACRIN trial, for which corresponding histological ground truth for spatial extent of CaP is known, show a marginally higher sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value compared to corresponding CAD results with the individual modalities.
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Satish Viswanath, Pallavi Tiwari, Mark Rosen, and Anant Madabhushi "A meta-classifier for detecting prostate cancer by quantitative integration of in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging", Proc. SPIE 6915, Medical Imaging 2008: Computer-Aided Diagnosis, 69153D (17 March 2008);

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