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17 March 2008 Coregistered volumetric true 3D ultrasonography in image-guided neurosurgery
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Intraoperative ultrasound (iUS) has emerged as a practical neuronavigational tool in image-guided open cranial procedures because of its low cost, easy implementation and real time image acquisition. Two-dimensional iUS (2DiUS) is currently the most common ultrasonic imaging tool used in the operating room (OR). However, gaps between imaging planes and limited volumetric sampling with 2DiUS often result in incomplete imaging of the internal anatomical structures of interest (e.g., tumor). In this paper, we investigate and evaluate the use of coregistered volumetric true three-dimensional iUS (3DiUS) generated from a broadband matrix array transducer (X3-1) attached to a Phillips iU22 intelligent ultrasound system. This 3DiUS scheme is able to provide full 3D sampling over a frustum-shaped volume with high resolution dicom images directly recovered by the ultrasound system without the need for free-hand sweeps or 3D reconstruction. Volumetric 3DiUS images were co-registered with preoperative magnetic resonance (pMR) images by tracking the spatial location and orientation of an infrared light-emitting tracker rigidly attached to the US scan-head following a fiducial registration and an iUS scan-head calibration. The registration was further refined using an imagebased scheme to maximize the inter-image normalized mutual information. In addition, we have utilized a coordinate system nomenclature and developed a set of static visualization techniques to present 3D US image data in the OR, which will be important for qualitative and quantitative analyses of the performance of 3DiUS in image-guided neurosurgery in the future. We show that 3DiUS significantly improves the imaging efficiency and enhances integration of iUS into the surgical workflow, making it appear to be promising for routine use in the OR.
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Songbai Ji, Alex Hartov, Kathryn Fontaine, Andrea Borsic, David Roberts M.D., and Keith Paulsen "Coregistered volumetric true 3D ultrasonography in image-guided neurosurgery", Proc. SPIE 6918, Medical Imaging 2008: Visualization, Image-Guided Procedures, and Modeling, 69180F (17 March 2008);

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