15 April 2008 Development of an operational high refractive index resist for 193nm immersion lithography
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Abstract
Generation-three (Gen-3) immersion lithography offers the promise of enabling the 32nm half-pitch node. For Gen-3 lithography to be successful, however, there must be major breakthroughs in materials development: The hope of obtaining numerical aperture imaging ≥ 1.70 is dependent on a high index lens, fluid, and resist. Assuming that a fluid and a lens will be identified, this paper focuses on a possible path to a high index resist. Simulations have shown that the index of the resist should be ≥ 1.9 with any index higher than 1.9 leading to an increased process latitude. Creation of a high index resist from conventional chemistry has been shown to be unrealistic. The answer may be to introduce a high index, polarizable material into a resist that is inert relative to the polymer behavior, but will this too degrade the performance of the overall system? The specific approach is to add very high index (~2.9) nanoparticles to an existing resist system. These nanoparticles have a low absorbance; consequently the imaging of conventional 193nm resists does not degrade. Further, the nanoparticles are on the order of 3nm in diameter, thus minimizing any impact on line edge roughness (LER).
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Paul A. Zimmerman, Paul A. Zimmerman, Jeffrey Byers, Jeffrey Byers, Emil Piscani, Emil Piscani, Bryan Rice, Bryan Rice, Christopher K. Ober, Christopher K. Ober, Emmanuel P. Giannelis, Emmanuel P. Giannelis, Robert Rodriguez, Robert Rodriguez, Dongyan Wang, Dongyan Wang, Andrew Whittaker, Andrew Whittaker, Idriss Blakey, Idriss Blakey, Lan Chen, Lan Chen, Bronwin Dargaville, Bronwin Dargaville, Heping Liu, Heping Liu, } "Development of an operational high refractive index resist for 193nm immersion lithography", Proc. SPIE 6923, Advances in Resist Materials and Processing Technology XXV, 692306 (15 April 2008); doi: 10.1117/12.772871; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.772871
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