4 April 2008 Self-segregating materials for immersion lithography
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In this paper, we employ the self-segregating materials approach used in topcoat-free resists for water immersion lithography to extend the performance of topcoat materials for water immersion and to increase the contact angles of organic fluids on topcoat-free resists for high index immersion lithography. By tailoring polymers that segregate to the air and resist interfaces of the topcoat, high contact angle topcoats with relatively low fluorine content are achieved. While graded topcoats may extend the performance and/or reduce the cost of topcoat materials, the large amount of unprotected acidic groups necessary for TMAH development prevent them from achieving the high contact angles and low hysteresis exhibited by topcoat-free resists. Another application of this self-segregating approach is tailoring resist surfaces for high index immersion. Due to the low surface tension and higher viscosities of organic fluids relative to water and their lower contact angles on most surfaces, film pulling cannot be prevented without dramatically reducing wafer scan rates; however, tuning the surface energy of the resist may be important to control stain morphology and facilitate fluid removal from the wafer. By tailoring fluoropolymer additives for high contact angles with second generation organic high index immersion fluids, we show herein that topcoat-free resists can be developed specifically for high index immersion lithography with good contact angles and lithographic imaging performance.
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Daniel P. Sanders, Linda K. Sundberg, Phillip J. Brock, Hiroshi Ito, Hoa D. Truong, Robert D. Allen, Gregory R. McIntyre, Dario L. Goldfarb, "Self-segregating materials for immersion lithography", Proc. SPIE 6923, Advances in Resist Materials and Processing Technology XXV, 692309 (4 April 2008); doi: 10.1117/12.772937; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.772937

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