15 April 2008 Development and evaluation of 193nm immersion generation-three fluid candidates
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Abstract
The need to extend 193nm immersion lithography necessitates the development of a third generation (Gen-3) of high refractive index (RI) fluids that will enable approximately 1.7 numerical aperture (NA) imaging. A multi-pronged approach was taken to develop these materials. One approach investigated the highest-index organic thus far discovered. The second approach used a very high refractive index nanoparticle to make a nanocomposite fluid. This report will describe the chemistry of the best Gen-3 fluid candidates and the systematic approach to their identification and synthesis. Images obtained with the Gen-3 fluid candidates will also be presented for a NA ≥ 1.7.
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Paul A. Zimmerman, Jeffrey Byers, Bryan Rice, Christopher K. Ober, Emmanuel P. Giannelis, Robert Rodriguez, Dongyan Wang, Naphtali O’Connor, Xuegong Lei, Nicholas J. Turro, Vladimir Liberman, Stephen Palmacci, Mordechai Rothschild, Neal Lafferty, Bruce W. Smith, "Development and evaluation of 193nm immersion generation-three fluid candidates", Proc. SPIE 6923, Advances in Resist Materials and Processing Technology XXV, 69230A (15 April 2008); doi: 10.1117/12.772887; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.772887
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