15 April 2008 Development and evaluation of 193nm immersion generation-three fluid candidates
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The need to extend 193nm immersion lithography necessitates the development of a third generation (Gen-3) of high refractive index (RI) fluids that will enable approximately 1.7 numerical aperture (NA) imaging. A multi-pronged approach was taken to develop these materials. One approach investigated the highest-index organic thus far discovered. The second approach used a very high refractive index nanoparticle to make a nanocomposite fluid. This report will describe the chemistry of the best Gen-3 fluid candidates and the systematic approach to their identification and synthesis. Images obtained with the Gen-3 fluid candidates will also be presented for a NA ≥ 1.7.
© (2008) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Paul A. Zimmerman, Paul A. Zimmerman, Jeffrey Byers, Jeffrey Byers, Bryan Rice, Bryan Rice, Christopher K. Ober, Christopher K. Ober, Emmanuel P. Giannelis, Emmanuel P. Giannelis, Robert Rodriguez, Robert Rodriguez, Dongyan Wang, Dongyan Wang, Naphtali O’Connor, Naphtali O’Connor, Xuegong Lei, Xuegong Lei, Nicholas J. Turro, Nicholas J. Turro, Vladimir Liberman, Vladimir Liberman, Stephen Palmacci, Stephen Palmacci, Mordechai Rothschild, Mordechai Rothschild, Neal Lafferty, Neal Lafferty, Bruce W. Smith, Bruce W. Smith, } "Development and evaluation of 193nm immersion generation-three fluid candidates", Proc. SPIE 6923, Advances in Resist Materials and Processing Technology XXV, 69230A (15 April 2008); doi: 10.1117/12.772887; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.772887

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