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26 March 2008 Dynamics of poly(4-hydroxystyrene) radical cation
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Poly(4-hydroxystyrene) (PHS) has been used in KrF excimer laser (248 nm) lithography as a backbone polymer, and is also a promising material for EUV or electron beam lithography. Analysis of the intermediate species is important for the control of reactions in resist materials. Since the size of integrated circuits fabricated for mass production will decrease below 30 nm and the size error must also be decreased to the molecular level, the elucidation of proton dynamics at the molecular level is also important for reducing the deviation of the resist pattern size. In this study, the dynamics of PHS radical cations were studied, because PHS radical cation is main source of proton. The transient absorption of PHS was observed in the near-infrared region (NIR) in p-dioxane solutions by pulse radiolysis. The intramolecular PHS dimer radical cation (M2+.) were observed, whereas p-cresol shows no distinct CR band. Although the radical cations of phenol derivatives are known to be easily deprotonated, it was found that M2+. formation prevents deprotonation by its charge resonance stabilization.
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Kazumasa Okamoto, Takahiro Kozawa, and Seiichi Tagawa "Dynamics of poly(4-hydroxystyrene) radical cation", Proc. SPIE 6923, Advances in Resist Materials and Processing Technology XXV, 692329 (26 March 2008);

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