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7 March 2008 Variable loading kernels for OPC modeling
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The low k1-factor challenge in current photolithography has made OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) indispensable for critical patterning layers, and more efforts are needed in the development and calibration of OPC model. One of the key factors that affect the accuracy of wafer result is the accuracy of OPC model, and usually, only a few nanometers' fitting residual of OPC model is tolerable. So, several methods have been reported for improving the accuracy of OPC modeling, but the model fitting becomes more complex as the increase of fitting parameters accordingly. In this paper, the variable loading kernel to manipulate the behavior of OPC modeling was reported. The variable load kernel can be modified by space domain, and it also can be the combination of many load kernels, such as Kload= a1*Kload1 + a2*Kload2 + ...... + an*Kloadn. By combining of different variable load kernels, the resultant load kernel can be more flexible to manage the model behavior in different line widths and pitches. In the example of OPC fitting residuals of linearity patterns, it is obvious that the different models with different loading kernels yielded different residuals. The use of variable loading kernel achieves the satisfied small residuals for both small and large patterns simultaneously. Accordingly, easier OPC modeling with smaller fitting residual is anticipated by variable load kernel method.
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S. L. Tsai, Fred Lo, Elvis Yang, T. H. Yang, K. C. Chen, and C. Y. Lu "Variable loading kernels for OPC modeling", Proc. SPIE 6924, Optical Microlithography XXI, 69243X (7 March 2008);

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