As design rules shrink, the goal for model-based OPC/RET schemes is to minimize the discrepancy between the
intended pattern and the printed pattern, particularly among 2d structures. Errors in the OPC design often result from
insufficient model calibration across the parameter space of the imaging system and the focus-exposure process
window. Full-chip simulations can enable early detection of hotspots caused by OPC/RET errors, but often these OPC
model simulations have calibration limitations that result in undetected critical hotspots which limit the process window
and yield. Also, as manufacturing processes are improved to drive yield enhancement, and are transferred to new
facilities, the lithography tools and processes may differ from the original process used for OPC/RET model calibration
conditions, potentially creating new types of hotspots in the patterned layer.
In this work, we examine the predictive performance of rigorous physics-based 193 nm resist models in terms of
portability and extrapolative accuracy. To test portability, the performance of a physical model calibrated using 1d data
from a development facility will be quantified using 1d and 2d hotspot data generated at a different manufacturing
facility with a production attenuated-PSM lithography process at k1 < 0.4. To test extrapolative accuracy, a similar test
will be conducted using data generated at the manufacturing facility with illumination conditions which differ
significantly from the original calibration conditions. Simulations of post-OPC process windows will be used to
demonstrate application of calibrated physics-based resist models in hotspot characterization and mitigation.