8 April 2008 Multi-objective optimal control of vibratory energy harvesting systems
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This paper presents a new approach, based on H2 optimal control theory, for the maximization of power generation in energy harvesting systems. The theory determines the optimal harvested power attainable through the use of power electronics to effect linear feedback control of transducer current. In contrast to most of the prior work in this area, which has assumed harmonic response, the theory proposed here applies to stochastically-excited systems in broadband response, and can be used to harvest power simultaneously from multiple significant vibratory modes. It is also applicable to coupled networks of many transducers. The theory accounts for the impact of energy harvesting on the dynamics of the vibrating system in which the transducers are embedded. It also accounts for resistive and semiconductor dissipation in the power-electronic network interfacing the transducers with energy storage. Thus, losses in the electronics are addressed in the formulation of the optimal control law. Finally, the H2-optimal control formulation of the problem naturally allows for harvested power to be systematically balanced against other response objectives. Here, this is illustrated by showing how the harvesting objective can be maximized, subject to the constraint that the transducer voltages be maintained below that of the power-electronic bus; a condition which is required for the power-electronic control system to be fully operational. Although the theory is applicable across a broad range of applications, it is presented in the context of a piezoelectric bimorph example.
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J. T. Scruggs, "Multi-objective optimal control of vibratory energy harvesting systems", Proc. SPIE 6932, Sensors and Smart Structures Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and Aerospace Systems 2008, 693231 (8 April 2008); doi: 10.1117/12.776612; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.776612

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