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8 April 2008 Static analysis of an artificial muscle system based on PZT strain amplification
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In this paper the design and static analysis of a novel artificial muscle system are presented. The proposed design is based on exponential strain amplification applied to PZT stack actuators. Exponential strain amplification is achieved by means of a nested cellular architecture. The primary limitation of the nested strain amplification mechanisms is the loss of blocking force due to structural compliance. Therefore, to quantify and improve the performance of the design, analytical expressions are obtained for the blocking force and free displacement of two separate amplification mechanisms using Castigliano's strain energy and displacement theorem. Measured values for blocking force and free displacement validate the static behavior predicted by the solid mechanics. Design implications for the amplification mechanisms are then enumerated based on the theoretical modeling.
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Thomas W. Secord, Jun Ueda, and H. Harry Asada "Static analysis of an artificial muscle system based on PZT strain amplification", Proc. SPIE 6932, Sensors and Smart Structures Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and Aerospace Systems 2008, 69323L (8 April 2008);

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