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10 April 2008 Effectiveness of in situ damage localization methods using sparse ultrasonic sensor arrays
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Sparse ultrasonic arrays spatially distributed over a large area of a structure have been proposed and tested in the laboratory for in situ detection and localization of damage. Detection algorithms are typically based upon comparison to a baseline, where differences not explained by benign environmental effects are interpreted as damage. Most localization methods are either based upon an arrival time analysis of differenced signals or spatial distribution of a damage index. Triangulation and delay-and-sum type methods fall into the first category and, under ideal conditions, can accurately locate discrete damage such as a single crack. Methods in the second category do not rely on precise timing of scattered signals, but are limited in their ability to precisely locate discrete damage using a small number of sensors. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of both types of methods for locating a single site of discrete damage, and considers the degradation in performance resulting from errors in both wave speed and transducer locations.
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Jennifer E. Michaels "Effectiveness of in situ damage localization methods using sparse ultrasonic sensor arrays", Proc. SPIE 6935, Health Monitoring of Structural and Biological Systems 2008, 693510 (10 April 2008);

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