16 April 2008 Human detection range by active Doppler and passive ultrasonic methods
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Human motion can be characterized as a periodic, temporal process of a mechanical system and can be detected by active and passive ultrasonic methods. The active method utilizes Doppler ultrasound to characterize the motion of individual body parts (torso, legs, arms, etc.). The friction forces of a footstep produce broadband sound signals that can be measured by passive ultrasonic sensors. Comparison of Doppler motion and the footstep signals reveals a strong correlation of features between the footstep friction and the maximum Doppler shift. This article presents test results from measurements of human motion and evaluates the detection range for the passive ultrasonic method.
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Alexander Ekimov and James M. Sabatier "Human detection range by active Doppler and passive ultrasonic methods", Proc. SPIE 6943, Sensors, and Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) Technologies for Homeland Security and Homeland Defense VII, 69430R (16 April 2008); doi: 10.1117/12.775771; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.775771

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