18 April 2008 Single-photon-sensitive linear-mode APD ladar receiver developments
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New measurements are presented for multi-stage InGaAs avalanche photodiodes (APDs) which have the potential to perform GHz-rate single photon counting in linear mode. No increase in dark current was measured for an 11-device sample of 5-stage APDs following 717 hours of accelerated aging under bias at 50°C, during an initial lifetime study. Impulse response times of 0.45 ns, 0.9 ns, and 1.1 ns were measured directly for 6-, 8-, and 10-stage APDs, respectively, operated at a nominal gain of M=10. To assess the suitability of the technology for a NASA optical communications application, separate samples of 5-stage APDs were irradiated by 1- and 2-MeV protons at the University of Washington's Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics (UW CENPA) and by 63.5-MeV protons at the University of California Davis, Crocker Nuclear Laboratory (UCD CNL). Good agreement between calculated non-ionizing energy loss (NIEL) and observed damage was found for the low-energy protons at fluences of 1010 and 1011 cm-2. A NIEL calculation successfully predicted the damage observed following a 5×1010 cm-2 dose of 63.5-MeV protons by extrapolating from 2 MeV data, which suggests that displacement damage is the dominant mechanism.
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George M. Williams, George M. Williams, Madison A. Compton, Madison A. Compton, Andrew S. Huntington, Andrew S. Huntington, "Single-photon-sensitive linear-mode APD ladar receiver developments", Proc. SPIE 6950, Laser Radar Technology and Applications XIII, 69500Q (18 April 2008); doi: 10.1117/12.782570; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.782570

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