The Air Force Institute of Technology's Center for Directed Energy (AFIT/CDE) developed the High Energy Laser End-to-End Operational Simulation (HELEEOS) model in part to quantify the performance variance in laser propagation
created by the natural environment during dynamic engagements. As such, HELEEOS includes a fast-calculating, first
principles, worldwide surface-to-100 km, atmospheric propagation and characterization package. This package enables
the creation of profiles of temperature, pressure, water vapor content, optical turbulence, atmospheric particulates and
hydrometeors as they relate to line-by-line layer transmission, path and background radiance at wavelengths from the
ultraviolet to radio frequencies. Physics-based cloud and precipitation characterizations are coupled with a probability of
cloud free line-of-sight algorithm for all possible look angles. HELEEOS was developed under the sponsorship of the
High Energy Laser Joint Technology Office.
In the current paper an example of a unique high fidelity simulation of a bi-static, time-varying five band multispectral
remote observation of laser energy delivered on a test object is presented. The multispectral example emphasizes
atmospheric effects using HELEEOS, the interaction of the laser on target and the observed reflectance and subsequent
hot spot generated. A model of a sensor suite located on the surface is included to collect the diffuse reflected in-band
laser radiation and the emitted radiance of the hot spot in four separate and spatially offset MWIR and LWIR bands.
Particular care is taken in modeling the bidirectional reflectivity distribution function (BRDF) of the laser/target
interaction to account for both the coupling of energy into the target body and the changes in reflectance as a function of
temperature. The architecture supports any platform-target-observer geometry, geographic location, season, and time of
day; and it provides for correct contributions of the sky-earth background. The simulation accurately models the thermal
response, kinetics, turbulence, base disturbance, diffraction, and signal-to-noise ratios.