Breast cancer continues to be one of the most widely diagnosed forms of cancer in women and the second leading type
of cancer deaths for women. The metastatic spread and staging of breast cancer is typically evaluated through the nodal
assessment of the regional lymphatic system, and often this is performed during the surgical resection of the tumor mass.
The recurrence rate of breast cancer is highly dependent on several factors including the complete removal of the
primary tumor during surgery, and the presence of cancer cells in involved lymph nodes. Hence, developing means to
more accurately resect tumor cells, along with the tumor mass, and ensure negative surgical margins, offers the potential
to impact outcomes of breast cancer. The use of diffuse optical tomography has been applied for screening optical
mammography applications as an alternative to standard x-ray mammography. The use of coherence ranging and
coherent optical imaging in breast tissue has also found numerous applications, including intra-operative assessment of
tumor margin status during lumpectomy procedures, assessment of lymph node changes for staging metastatic spread,
and for guiding needle-biopsy procedures. The development, pre-clinical testing, and translation of techniques such as
low-coherence interferometry (LCI) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) into clinical applications in breast cancer
is demonstrated in these feasibility studies.