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2 May 2008 Raman microscopic imaging of cells and applications monitoring the uptake of drug delivery systems
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Raman spectroscopy, in combination with optical microscopy provides a new non-invasive method to asses and image cellular processes. Based on the spectral signatures of a cell's components, it is possible to image cellular organelles such as the nucleus, chromatin, mitochondria or lipid bodies, at the resolution of conventional microscopy. Several multivariate algorithms, for example hierarchical cluster analysis or orthogonal subspace projection, may be used to reconstruct an image of a cell. The noninvasive character of the technique, as well as the associated chemical information, may offer advantages over other imaging techniques such as fluorescence microscopy. Currently of particular interest are uptake and intracellular fate of various pharmaceutical nanocarriers, which are widely used for drug delivery purposes, including intracellular drug and gene delivery. We have imaged the uptake and distribution patterns of several carrier systems over time. In order to distinguish the species of interest from their cellular environment spectroscopically, the carrier particles or the drug load itself may be labeled with deuterium. Here, we introduce the concept of Raman imaging in combination with vertex component data analysis to follow the uptake of nanocarriers based on phospholipids as well as biodegradable polymers.
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Christian Matthäus, Tatyana Chernenko, Luis Quintero, Lara Milan, Amit Kale, Mansoor Amiji, Vladimir Torchilin, and Max Diem "Raman microscopic imaging of cells and applications monitoring the uptake of drug delivery systems", Proc. SPIE 6991, Biophotonics: Photonic Solutions for Better Health Care, 699106 (2 May 2008);

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