8 May 2008 The physics of catastrophic optical damage in high-power AlGaInP laser diodes
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An innovative combination of concepts, namely microphotoluminescence (μPL) mapping, focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and high-speed thermal imaging, was employed to reveal the physics behind catastrophic optical damage (COD), its related temperature dynamics, as well as associated defect and near-field patterns. μPL mapping showed that COD-related defects are composed of highly nonradiative complex dislocations, which start from the output facet and propagate deep inside the cavity. Moreover, FIB analysis confirmed that those dark line defects are confined to the active region, including the quantum wells and partially the waveguide. In addition, the COD dependence on temperature and power was analyzed in detail by micro-Raman spectroscopy and real-time thermal imaging. For AlGaInP lasers in the whole spectral range of 635 to 650 nm, it was revealed that absorption of stimulated photons at the laser output facet is the major source of facet heating, and that a critical facet temperature must be reached in order for COD to occur. A linear relationship between facet temperature and near-field intensity has also been established. This understanding of the semiconductor physics behind COD is a key element for further improvement in output power of AlGaInP diode lasers.
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M. Bou Sanayeh, M. Bou Sanayeh, P. Brick, P. Brick, W. Schmid, W. Schmid, B. Mayer, B. Mayer, M. Müller, M. Müller, M. Reufer, M. Reufer, K. Streubel, K. Streubel, M. Ziegler, M. Ziegler, J. W. Tomm, J. W. Tomm, G. Bacher, G. Bacher, "The physics of catastrophic optical damage in high-power AlGaInP laser diodes", Proc. SPIE 6997, Semiconductor Lasers and Laser Dynamics III, 699703 (8 May 2008); doi: 10.1117/12.779524; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.779524

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