8 May 2008 Photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers
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We review the analysis of loss and optical confinement in etched photonic crystal (PhC) vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The lossy PhC structure is modeled using a waveguide approach employing the scalar Helmholtz equation with complex refractive indices. Theoretical results are developed, analyzed, and compared to experimental measurements of spectral mode splitting, modal loss, and slope efficiency of fabricated VCSELs. This model is shown to design accurately single-mode photonic crystal VCSELs.
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Dominic F. Siriani, Paul O. Leisher, Kent D. Choquette, "Photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers", Proc. SPIE 6997, Semiconductor Lasers and Laser Dynamics III, 69970W (8 May 2008); doi: 10.1117/12.783596; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.783596

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