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28 April 2008 Optical sensors based on monolithic integrated organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)
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Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) permit the monolithic integration of microelectronic circuits and light-emitting devices on the same silicon chip. By the use of integrated photodetectors, low-cost CMOS processes and simple packaging; economically produced optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs) with combined sensors and actuating elements can be realized. The OLEDs are deposited directly on the top metal layer. The metal layer serves as electrode and defines the bright area. Furthermore, the area below the electrodes can be used for integrated circuits. Due to efficient emitter with low operating voltage it is possible to renounce high-voltage devices depending on selected CMOS process. Thus manufacturing cost can be further reduced. Different CMOS metallizations were examined and their effects on organic light-emitting diodes were analyzed. Red (628nm) and orange (597nm) emitting p-i-n OLEDs with a radiance of 5W/m2sr at 2.8V and 3.0V and a half angle of ±45° were realized on metal layer with low roughness. Near infra-red emitters are in development. We will present an optical microsystem. The functionality of combined sensors and actuating elements as well as advantages and difficulties of the monolithic integration of OLEDs and CMOS will be discussed. The chip was manufactured in a commercial 1μm CMOS technology. The fabricated microsystem combines three different types of sensors: a reflective sensor, a colour sensor and a particle flow sensor.
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S. Reckziegel, D. Kreye, T. Puegner, C. Grillberger, M. Toerker, U. Vogel, and J. Amelung "Optical sensors based on monolithic integrated organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)", Proc. SPIE 7003, Optical Sensors 2008, 700316 (28 April 2008);

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