Biophotonics techniques are applied to several fields in medicine and biology. The laser based techniques, such as the
laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy and the optical coherence tomography (OCT), are of particular importance
in dermatology, where the laser radiation could be directly applied to the tissue target (e.g. skin). In addition, OCT
resolves architectural tissue properties that might be useful as tumour discrimination parameters for skin as well as for
ocular non-invasive visualization.
Skin and ocular tissues are complex multilayered and inhomogeneous organs with spatially varying optical properties.
This fact complicates the quantitative analysis of the fluorescence and/or light scattering spectra, even from the same
tissue sample. To overcome this problem, mathematical simulation is applied for the investigation of the human tissue
optical properties, in the visible/infrared range of the spectrum, resulting in a better discrimination of several tissue
In this work, we present i) a general view on biophotonics applications in diagnosis of human diseases, ii) some specific
results on laser spectroscopy techniques, as LIF measurements, applied in arterial and skin pathologies and iii) some
experimental and theoretical results on ocular OCT measurements. Regarding the LIF spectroscopy, we examined the
autofluorescence properties of several human skin samples, excised from humans undergoing biopsy examination. A
nitrogen laser was used as an excitation source, emitting at 337 nm (ultraviolet excitation). Histopathology examination
of the samples was also performed, after the laser spectroscopy measurements and the results from the spectroscopic and
medical analysis were compared, to differentiate malignancies, e.g. basal cell carcinoma tissue (BCC), from normal skin
tissue. Regarding the OCT technique, we correlated human data, obtained from patients undergoing OCT examination,
with Monte Carlo simulated cornea and retina tissues for diagnosis of ocular diseases.