2 September 2008 Charge carrier injection and transport in organic thin films
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Current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics of hole-only devices using indium tin oxide (ITO) anode and N,N'- diphenyl-N,N'-bis(1-naphthyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (α-NPD) layer were measured with various thicknesses of a molybdenum oxide (MoO3) buffer layer inserted between ITO and α-NPD. The device with a 0.75-nm-thick MoO3 layer forms Ohmic hole injection at the ITO/MoO3/α-NPD interfaces and J-V characteristics of this device are controlled by a space-charge-limited current. Results of X-ray photoelectron and ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared absorption studies revealed that this Ohmic hole injection is attributable to electron transfers from ITO to MoO3 and from α-NPD to MoO3. Moreover, we demonstrated that the Ohmic hole injection is realized at the interfaces of ITO/rubrene and ITO/N,N'-di(m-tolyl)-N,N'-diphenylbenzidine (TPD) using an ultrathin MoO3 layer as well.
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Toshinori Matsushima, Guang-He Jin, Yoshihiro Kanai, Tomoyuki Yokota, Seiki Kitada, Toshiyuki Kishi, Hideyuki Murata, "Charge carrier injection and transport in organic thin films", Proc. SPIE 7051, Organic Light Emitting Materials and Devices XII, 705112 (2 September 2008); doi: 10.1117/12.793969; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.793969

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