29 August 2008 Correctly making panoramic imagery and the meaning of optical center
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Abstract
The production and viewing of panoramic scenes have fascinated people for over a millennium beginning with the camera obscura. With the advent of photography in the mid-1800s, techniques were developed to create panoramic scenes far larger than could be realized by a single camera. Making a panoramic scene from two or more images taken using a film camera was found to be challenging. Various advanced techniques for making panoramic images were developed during the 20th century and required specialized cameras and film processing. In recent years, digital cameras and powerful software programs have become readily available to aid in making panoramic imagery although often strange artifacts appears in the composite image. This is generally due to improperly locating the rotation axis of the camera. Interestingly, there is significant argument about where the axis of rotation should be for making proper panoramic imagery. The most common "answer" is the rotation axis should be about the second or rear nodal point, which will be shown in this paper to be incorrect. A second "answer" is to rotate the camera about its optical center. This is also incorrect; however, what actually constitutes the optical center of a lens and its applications will be briefly discussed. Examples of correctly and incorrectly produced panoramic image will be presented.
© (2008) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
R. Barry Johnson, R. Barry Johnson, } "Correctly making panoramic imagery and the meaning of optical center", Proc. SPIE 7060, Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Engineering IX, 70600F (29 August 2008); doi: 10.1117/12.805489; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.805489
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