28 August 2008 Nucleotide fluctuation of RecA repair gene in Siberian permafrost Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5
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A nucleotide sequence can be expressed as a numerical sequence when each nucleotide is assigned its proton number. A resulting gene numerical sequence can be investigated for its fractal dimension in terms of evolution and chemical properties for comparative studies. We have investigated such nucleotide fluctuation in the RecA repair gene of Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5, Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4, and Psychrobacter sp. PRwf-1. The fractal dimension was found to correlate with the gene's operating temperature with the highest fractal dimension associated with P. cryohalolentis K5 living at the low temperatures found in Siberian permafrost. The CpG dinucleotide content was found to be about 5% for the three species of Psychrobacters, which is substantially lower than that of Deinococcus radiodurans at about 12%. The average nucleotide pair-wise free energy was found to be lowest for Psychrobacter sp. PRwf-1, the species with the lowest fractal dimension of the three, consistent with the recent finding that Psychrobacter sp. PRw-f1 has a temperature growth maximum of 15-20°C higher than P. arcticus 273-4 and P. cryohaloentis K5. The results suggest that microbial vitality in extreme environments is associated with fractal dimension as well as high CpG dinucleotide content, while the average nucleotide pair-wise free energy is related to the operating environment. Evidence that extreme temperature operation would impose constraints measurable by Shannon entropy is also discussed. A quantitative estimate of an entropy-based measure having the characteristics of a mechanical pressure shows that the Psychrobacter RecA sequence experiences lower pressure than that of the human HAR1 sequence.
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George Tremberger, George Tremberger, T. Holden, T. Holden, E. Cheung, E. Cheung, R. Subramaniam, R. Subramaniam, R. Sullivan, R. Sullivan, P. Schneider, P. Schneider, A. Flamholz, A. Flamholz, P. Marchese, P. Marchese, D. Lieberman, D. Lieberman, T. Cheung, T. Cheung, "Nucleotide fluctuation of RecA repair gene in Siberian permafrost Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5", Proc. SPIE 7097, Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology XI, 70970U (28 August 2008); doi: 10.1117/12.794390; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.794390

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