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13 October 2008 Using satellite remote sensing to monitor the total suspended solids (TSS) over Penang Island, Malaysia
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Total suspended solid (TSS) is a major factor affecting water quality in aquatic ecosystem. An investigation has been conducted to test the feasibility of using SPOT 5 data for estimating TSS in the coastal waters of Penang Island, Malaysia. Atmospheric correction of the satellite measurements is critical for aquatic remote sensing. Atmospheric correction of the remotely sensed image was performed using the ENVI FLAASH. Water samples were collected simultaneously with the satellite image acquisition and later analyzed in the laboratory. The digital numbers for each band corresponding to the sea-truth locations were extracted and then converted into reflectance values. The variables of the reflectance were used for calibration of the water quality algorithm. Regression technique was employed to calibrate the algorithm using the SPOT multispectral signals. An algorithm was developed based on the reflectance model, which is a function of the inherent optical properties of water that can be related to the concentration of its constituents. Spatial distribution map of the water quality parameter was produced using the calibrated algorithm. The efficiency of the present algorithm, in comparison to other forms of algorithm, was also investigated. Finally, the TSS map was generated using the proposed algorithm.
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H. S. Lim, M. Z. MatJafri, K. Abdullah, and N. Mohd. Saleh "Using satellite remote sensing to monitor the total suspended solids (TSS) over Penang Island, Malaysia", Proc. SPIE 7105, Remote Sensing of the Ocean, Sea Ice, and Large Water Regions 2008, 71050Z (13 October 2008);

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