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17 October 2008 Detection of progressive transmission loss due to haze with Galileo mask DUV transmittance mapping based on non imaging optics
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In this paper, we expand on our earlier work1,2 reporting the use of high sensitivity DUV transmission metrology as a means for detection of progressive transmission loss on mask and pellicle surfaces. We also report a use case for incoming reticle qualification based on DUV transmission uniformity. Traditional inspection systems rely on algorithms to locate discrete defects greater than a threshold size (typically > 100nm), or printing a wafer and then looking for repeating defects using wafer inspection and SEM review. These types of defect inspection do not have the ability to detect transmission degradation at the low levels where it begins to impact yield. There are numerous mechanisms for transmission degradation, including haze in its early, thin film form, electric-field induced field migration, and pellicle degradation. During the early development of haze, it behaves as a surface film which reduces 193nm transmission and requires compensation by scanner dose. The film forms in a non-uniform fashion, resulting from non-uniformity of exposure on the pattern side due to varying dose passing through the attenuating layers. As this non-uniformity evolves, there is a gradual loss of wafer critical dimension uniformity (CDU) due to a degradation of the exposure dose homogeneity. Electric-field induced migration also appears to manifest as a non-uniform transmission loss, typically presenting with a radial signature. In this paper we present evidence that a DUV transmission measurement system, GalileTM, is capable of detecting low levels of transmission loss, prior to CDU related yield loss or the appearance of printing defects. Galileo is an advanced DUV transmission metrology system which utilizes a wide-band, incoherent light source and non-imaging optics to achieve sensitivities to transmission changes of less than 0.1%. Due to its very high SNR, it has a fast MAM time of less than 1 sec per point, measuring a full field mask in as little as 30 minutes. A flexible user interface enables users to easily define measurement recipes, threshold sensitivities, and time-based tracking of transmission degradation. The system measures through pellicle under better than class 1 clean air conditions.
© (2008) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Steven Labovitz, Guy Ben-Zvi, Vladimir Dmitriev, Erez Graitzer, and Eitan Zait "Detection of progressive transmission loss due to haze with Galileo mask DUV transmittance mapping based on non imaging optics", Proc. SPIE 7122, Photomask Technology 2008, 712216 (17 October 2008);

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