The distributed optical fiber temperature measurement system (DTS) is a kind of sensing system, which is applied to the
real-time measurement of the temperature field in space. It is widely used in monitoring of production process: fire alarm
of coal mine and fuel depots, heat detection and temperature monitor of underground cable, seepage and leakage of dam.
Through analyzing temperature effect of optical fiber Raman backscattering theoretically, a distributed temperature
sensor based on single-mode fiber was designed, which overcame the inadequacies of multimode fiber. The narrow pulse
width laser, excellent InGaAS PIN, low noise precision difet operational amplifier and high speed data acquisition card
in order to improve the stability of this system were selected. The demodulation method based on ratio of Anti-Stokes
and Stokes Raman backscattering intensity was adopted. Both hardware composition and software implementation of the
system were introduced in detail. It is proved that its distinguishing ability of temperature and space are 1 m and 2 m,
respectively. The system response time is about 180 s, with a sensing range of 5 km and the temperature measurement
range 0~100 °C.