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18 February 2009 Raman analysis of yield in cortical bone
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There is a relatively deep understanding of macro and meso scale failure processes taking place in bone. Bone has multiple orders of structural hierarchy and damage has to evolve through molecular, supramolecular and micron scales before giving forth to fractures. Raman spectroscopy is known to be an efficient technique to provide information on the failure processes at these scales. We used Raman microspectroscopy to assess the deformation of bone at the supramolecular level and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) was applied to relate local strains to observed shifts in the wavenumber of phosphate symmetric stretch band. DIC analysis of notched samples loaded in tension showed the presence of compressive as well as tensile residual strains. Tensile strain however, was more predominant near the notch. Raman analysis corroborated DIC observations such that the majority of the samples displayed negative shifts in mineral band indicating tensile deformations. The results support Raman based observation of deformations in bone and indicate that heterogeneity and anisotropy of bone complicate the expected stress patterns.
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Ji Hoon Jeon, Vinay J. Korlepara, John Blendell, and Ozan Akkus "Raman analysis of yield in cortical bone", Proc. SPIE 7166, Optics in Bone Biology and Diagnostics, 716606 (18 February 2009);

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