18 February 2009 Quantum dots as mineral- and matrix-specific strain gages for bone biomechanical studies
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Abstract
We report the use of quantum dots (Qdots) as strain gages in the study of bone biomechanics using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We have developed solid state NMR sample cells for investigation of deformations of bone tissue components at loads up to several Mega Pascal. The size constraints of the NMR instrumentation limit the bone specimen diameter and length to be no greater than 2-3 mm and 30 mm respectively. Further, magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state NMR experiments require the use of non-metallic apparatus that can be rotated at kilohertz rates. These experimental constraints preclude the use of standard biomechanical measurement systems. In this paper we explore the use of quantum dot center of gravity measurement as a strain gage technology consistent with the constraints of solid state NMR. We use Qdots that bind calcium (625 nm emission) and collagen (705 nm emission) for measurement of strain in these components. Compressive loads are applied to a specimen in a cell through a fine pitch screw turned with a mini-torque wrench. Displacement is measured as changes in the positions of arrays of quantum dots on the surface of a specimen. Arrays are created by spotting the specimen with dilute suspensions of Qdots. Mineral labeling is achieved with 705 nm carboxylated dots and matrix labeling with 565 nm quantum dots conjugated to collagen I antibodies. After each load increment the new positions of the quantum dots are measured by fluorescence microscopy. Changes in Qdot center of gravity as a function of applied load can be measured with submicron accuracy.
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Peizhi Zhu, Jiadi Xu, Michael Morris, Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy, Nadder Sahar, David Kohn, "Quantum dots as mineral- and matrix-specific strain gages for bone biomechanical studies", Proc. SPIE 7166, Optics in Bone Biology and Diagnostics, 71660F (18 February 2009); doi: 10.1117/12.809348; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.809348
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