Anyone can make a fluorometer. All that is needed is a light source, a detector, some filters and maybe some lenses. For
commercial clinical instruments, however, our customers demand stability, reliability, and reproducibility. If research
instruments are like race cars, commercial instruments should be like trucks. This demands that our fluorometer designs
be carefully toleranced. This paper will discuss causes of variation and drift, and ways to make fluorometers that are
stable and reproducible.
"Tolerancing fluorometers for in-vitro diagnostics", Proc. SPIE 7170, Design and Quality for Biomedical Technologies II, 71700O (23 February 2009); doi: 10.1117/12.810845; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.810845