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23 February 2009 Effects of optical irradiation parameters on safe peripheral nerve stimulation with infrared light
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Proceedings Volume 7180, Photons and Neurons; 71800P (2009)
Event: SPIE BiOS, 2009, San Jose, California, United States
Optical stimulation (OS) is a relatively novel approach for restoring function to the damaged nervous system. The effectiveness and safety of OS is dependent upon selecting the appropriate stimulation parameters. This involves stimulating neurons to their activation threshold while preventing laser-induced tissue injury. Although significant advances have been made in studying the efficacy of OS, safety parameters are still being developed. We have employed electrophysiological techniques to determine salient experimental parameters of safety that can be used to optimize OS. Extracellular recordings of compound nerve potentials were obtained from excised adult rat sciatic nerves. OS was accomplished with infrared pulsed Nd:YAG, Er:YAG and diode lasers that had peak wavelength emissions at 1.064 μm, 2.94 μm and 1.85 μm, respectively. Electrically evoked compound action potentials (E-CAPs) were assayed before and after laser irradiation to determine if OS affected E-CAPs. Injurious laser irradiation doses were observed at levels 2-3 fold greater than optical threshold, producing tissue hyalinization and decreases in the peak amplitude of E-CAPs. However, effects on electrical threshold and conduction velocity were negligible. At laser irradiation doses near optical threshold, low repetition rates of laser pulses produced a gradual increase in laser evoked CAP (L-CAP) amplitudes, suggesting a cumulative effect in the interactions between light and tissue. Higher repetition rates (5-10 Hz) at laser irradiation doses 2-3 fold above optical threshold produced a decrement in L-CAP and E-CAP amplitudes. These results suggest that laser pulse parameters have a direct impact on optical stimulation and damage thresholds.
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Elizabeth Katz, Do-Hyun Kim, Ilko Ilev, and Victor Krauthamer "Effects of optical irradiation parameters on safe peripheral nerve stimulation with infrared light", Proc. SPIE 7180, Photons and Neurons, 71800P (23 February 2009);

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