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24 February 2009 A multi-spectral dark-field reflectance microscope for tumor margin delineation during breast lumpectomy
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Infiltrating neoplastic epithelia induce ultra-structure changes in tissue providing an intrinsic contrast in terms of their local light scattering response. Imaging systems that can enhance this contrast allow for better visualization of tumor boundaries and thus have enormous potential in guiding complex surgical procedures like breast lumpectomy. Highly localized reflectance measurement probes can quantify scattering changes in tissues in situ, but in order to be useful in surgical settings these techniques require an extension to imaging. A novel microsampling reflectance imaging system has been developed to allow rapid quantitative imaging of ultra-structure associated scattering changes in tissues in situ. The imaging system is described in terms of its design, construction and testing for multi-wavelength, telecentric, darkfield illumination and confocal spectroscopic detection, with imaging fields of up to 1.5 cm × 1.5 cm at 100 microns resolution. Spatial confinement of the incident and detected light allows for direct sampling of the scattering spectrum in tissues in situ and the telecentric design ensures consistent sampling of the scattering phase function throughout the entire imaging field. The imaging system was modeled and optimized using the ZEMAX optical design software. Description of the design and results from the optimization process are presented.
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Venkataramanan Krishnaswamy, Wendy A. Wells, Ashley M. Laughney, Kimberley S. Samkoe, and Brian W. Pogue "A multi-spectral dark-field reflectance microscope for tumor margin delineation during breast lumpectomy", Proc. SPIE 7187, Biomedical Applications of Light Scattering III, 718710 (24 February 2009);

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