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24 February 2009 Local modification of ceramic surfaces by a laser induced cladding process
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In order to develop a multifunctional material, a laser induced process was applied to change the properties of a glass-ceramic by introducing a second phase into the surface. Localized melting of the ceramic and/or a melting of a preplaced powder layer was achieved by the application of laser energy. After solidification a composite with new properties was developed. The characteristic feature of the process is the option of a local modification, which is restricted to the substrate surface and can be controlled by adjustment of the laser parameters. Accordingly modified areas with different geometries and with a complex multiphase microstructure could be fabricated, while the ceramic bulk remains in its original state. Sintered LTCC-substrates (Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic) were modified with powders metal-oxides (WO3, CuO) with nanosized particles. Powders of metals (Cu, Ni) were used too. Cladding layers located at the top of the substrate or layers with a thickness up to several hundred microns, which were embedded into the substrate surface, could be fabricated. The properties of the laser modified regions differ significantly from that of the LTCC-substrate. The obtained structures offer modified mechanical, thermophysical and electrical properties. In particular an enhanced thermal conductivity could be detected. The electrical resistivity of the laser modified tracks widely varied depending on the process parameters and the powder. Tracks made with CuO- and WO3-powders show a negative temperature coefficient for electrical resistance, i.e. it decreases with increasing temperature, which is typical for semiconductors.
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Sabine Schreck and Magnus Rohde "Local modification of ceramic surfaces by a laser induced cladding process", Proc. SPIE 7202, Laser-based Micro- and Nanopackaging and Assembly III, 72020A (24 February 2009);

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