24 February 2009 20 Gbit/s error free transmission with ~850 nm GaAs-based vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) containing InAs-GaAs submonolayer quantum dot insertions
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Abstract
We report on the modeling, epitaxial growth, fabrication, and characterization of 830-845 nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) that employ InAs-GaAs quantum dot (QD) gain elements. The GaAs-based VCSELs are essentially conventional in design, grown by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy, and include top and bottom gradedheterointerface AlGaAs distributed Bragg reflectors, a single selectively-oxidized AlAs waveguiding/current funneling aperture layer, and a quasi-antiwaveguiding microcavity. The active region consists of three sheets of InAs-GaAs submonolayer insertions separated by AlGaAs matrix layers. Compared to QWs the InAs-GaAs insertions are expected to offer higher exciton-dominated modal gain and improved carrier capture and retention, thus resulting in superior temperature stability and resilience to degradation caused by operating at the larger switching currents commonly employed to increase the data rates of modern optical communication systems. We investigate the robustness and temperature performance of our QD VCSEL design by fabricating prototype devices in a high-frequency ground-sourceground contact pad configuration suitable for on-wafer probing. Arrays of VCSELs are produced with precise variations in top mesa diameter from 24 to 36 μm and oxide aperture diameter from 1 to 12 μm resulting in VCSELs that operate in full single-mode, single-mode to multi-mode, and full multi-mode regimes. The single-mode QD VCSELs have room temperature threshold currents below 0.5 mA and peak output powers near 1 mW, whereas the corresponding values for full multi-mode devices range from about 0.5 to 1.5 mA and 2.5 to 5 mW. At 20°C we observe optical transmission at 20 Gb/s through 150 m of OM3 fiber with a bit error ratio better than 10-12, thus demonstrating the great potential of our QD VCSELs for applications in next-generation short-distance optical data communications and interconnect systems.
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J. A. Lott, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, A. Stinz, F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, D. Bimberg, S. A. Blokhin, L. Y. Karachinsky, I. I. Novikov, M. V. Maximov, N. D. Zakharov, P. Werner, "20 Gbit/s error free transmission with ~850 nm GaAs-based vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) containing InAs-GaAs submonolayer quantum dot insertions", Proc. SPIE 7211, Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XVII, 721114 (24 February 2009); doi: 10.1117/12.816947; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.816947
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