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17 February 2009 Solid state photomultipliers and Geiger photodiodes with integrated readout and signal processing
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Abstract
CMOS Geiger avalanche photodiodes (GPD), and parallel arrays of GPDs - a solid-state photomultiplier - are high-gain, high-sensitivity, versatile light sensors. Applications include readout of scintillation materials for nuclear detection and gamma ray imaging, scanning of biological fluorescence including flow cytometry, and as LIDAR sensors. Manufacturing such devices in CMOS provides the possibility of direct integration of signal processing and readout electronics monolithically with the sensor. Recently, RMD has fabricated SSPM arrays with pixel-level conditioning. For example, comparators at the pixel level are used, as described in this work, to condition the signal. These active pixel elements provide active quenching of the Geiger avalanche, increase dynamic range, and can suppress afterpulsing by the application of a long gate. A conditioned signal can also isolate the output from the temperature fluctuations that are often associated with silicon devices. We examine the performance of these integrated circuits at the pixel level and at the level of the whole sensor. Preliminary results show that sources of electronic noise are drastically reduced. The resulting isolation of the processed signals from bias and temperature fluctuations is presented.
© (2009) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
C. J. Stapels, E. B. Johnson, S. Mukhopadhyay, P. S. Linsay, E. C. Chapman, and J. F. Christian "Solid state photomultipliers and Geiger photodiodes with integrated readout and signal processing", Proc. SPIE 7220, Silicon Photonics IV, 72200H (17 February 2009); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.812104
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