History shows that problems that cause human confusion often lead to inventions to solve the problems,
which then leads to exploitation of the invention, creating a confusion-invention-exploitation cycle.
Robotics, which started as a new type of universal machine implemented with a computer controlled
mechanism in the 1960's, has progressed from an Age of Over-expectation, a Time of Nightmare, an Age
of Realism, and is now entering the Age of Exploitation.
The purpose of this paper is to propose architecture for the modern intelligent robot in which sensors permit
adaptation to changes in the environment are combined with a "creative controller" that permits adaptive
critic, neural network learning, and a dynamic database that permits task selection and criteria adjustment.
This ideal model may be compared to various controllers that have been implemented using Ethernet, CAN
Bus and JAUS architectures and to modern, embedded, mobile computing architectures. Several
prototypes and simulations are considered in view of peta-computing. The significance of this comparison
is that it provides some insights that may be useful in designing future robots for various manufacturing,
medical, and defense applications.