Research that began a decade ago in video copy detection has developed into a technology known as "video
fingerprinting". Today, video fingerprinting is an essential and enabling tool adopted by the industry for video content
identification and management in online video distribution. This paper provides a comprehensive review of video
fingerprinting technology and its applications in identifying, tracking, and managing copyrighted content on the Internet.
The review includes a survey on video fingerprinting algorithms and some fundamental design considerations, such as
robustness, discriminability, and compactness. It also discusses fingerprint matching algorithms, including complexity
analysis, and approximation and optimization for fast fingerprint matching. On the application side, it provides an
overview of a number of industry-driven applications that rely on video fingerprinting. Examples are given based on
real-world systems and workflows to demonstrate applications in detecting and managing copyrighted content, and in
monitoring and tracking video distribution on the Internet.