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4 February 2009 Feature reduction and payload location with WAM steganalysis
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Proceedings Volume 7254, Media Forensics and Security; 72540A (2009) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.805910
Event: IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging, 2009, San Jose, California, United States
Abstract
WAM steganalysis is a feature-based classifier for detecting LSB matching steganography, presented in 2006 by Goljan et al. and demonstrated to be sensitive even to small payloads. This paper makes three contributions to the development of the WAM method. First, we benchmark some variants of WAM in a number of sets of cover images, and we are able to quantify the significance of differences in results between different machine learning algorithms based on WAM features. It turns out that, like many of its competitors, WAM is not effective in certain types of cover, and furthermore it is hard to predict which types of cover are suitable for WAM steganalysis. Second, we demonstrate that only a few the features used in WAM steganalysis do almost all of the work, so that a simplified WAM steganalyser can be constructed in exchange for a little less detection power. Finally, we demonstrate how the WAM method can be extended to provide forensic tools to identify the location (and potentially content) of LSB matching payload, given a number of stego images with payload placed in the same locations. Although easily evaded, this is a plausible situation if the same stego key is mistakenly re-used for embedding in multiple images.
© (2009) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Andrew D. Ker and Ivans Lubenko "Feature reduction and payload location with WAM steganalysis", Proc. SPIE 7254, Media Forensics and Security, 72540A (4 February 2009); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.805910
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