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13 March 2009 Frequency compounding in multifrequency vibroacoustography
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Vibro-acoustography is a speckle-free ultrasound based imaging modality that can visualize normal and abnormal soft tissue through mapping stimulated acoustic emission. The acoustic emission is generated by focusing two ultrasound beams of slightly different frequencies (Δf = f1-f2) to the same spatial location and vibrating the tissue as a result of ultrasound radiation force. Reverberation of the acoustic emission can create dark and bright areas in the image that affect overall image contrast and detectability of abnormal tissue. Using finite length tonebursts yields acoustic emission at Δf and at sidebands centered about Δf that originate from the temporal toneburst gating. Separate images are formed by bandpass filtering the acoustic emission at Δf and the associated sidebands. The data at these multiple frequencies are compounded through coherent or incoherent processes to reduce the artifacts associated with reverberation of the acoustic emission. Experimental results from a urethane breast phantom and in vivo human breast scans are shown. The reduction in reverberation artifacts are analyzed using a smoothness metric which uses the variances of the gray levels of the original images and those formed through coherent and incoherent compounding of image data. This smoothness metric is minimized when the overall image background is smooth while image features are still preserved. The smoothness metric indicates that the images improved by factors from 1.23-4.33 and 1.09-2.68 in phantom and in vivo studies, respectively. The coherent and incoherent compounding of multifrequency data demonstrate, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the efficacy of this method for reduction of reverberation artifacts.
© (2009) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Matthew W. Urban, Azra Alizad, and Mostafa Fatemi "Frequency compounding in multifrequency vibroacoustography", Proc. SPIE 7265, Medical Imaging 2009: Ultrasonic Imaging and Signal Processing, 726511 (13 March 2009);

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