11 May 2009 Large-area low-temperature ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films and integration with CMOS devices for monolithically integrated diamond MEMS/NEMS-CMOS systems
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Abstract
Because of exceptional mechanical, chemical, and tribological properties, diamond has a great potential to be used as a material for the development of high-performance MEMS and NEMS such as resonators and switches compatible with harsh environments, which involve mechanical motion and intermittent contact. Integration of such MEMS/NEMS devices with complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) microelectronics will provide a unique platform for CMOS-driven commercial MEMS/NEMS. The main hurdle to achieve diamond-CMOS integration is the relatively high substrate temperatures (600-800°C) required for depositing conventional diamond thin films, which are well above the CMOS operating thermal budget (400 °C). Additionally, a materials integration strategy has to be developed to enable diamond-CMOS integration. Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD), a novel material developed in thin film form at Argonne, is currently the only microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) grown diamond film that can be grown at 400 °C, and still retain exceptional mechanical, chemical, and tribological properties comparable to that of single crystal diamond. We have developed a process based on MPCVD to synthesize UNCD films on up to 200 mm in diameter CMOS wafers, which will open new avenues for the fabrication of monolithically integrated CMOS-driven MEMS/NEMS based on UNCD. UNCD films were grown successfully on individual Si-based CMOS chips and on 200 mm CMOS wafers at 400 °C in a MPCVD system, using Ar-rich/CH4 gas mixture. The CMOS devices on the wafers were characterized before and after UNCD deposition. All devices were performing to specifications with very small degradation after UNCD deposition and processing. A threshold voltage degradation in the range of 0.08-0.44V and transconductance degradation in the range of 1.5-9% were observed.
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A. V. Sumant, A. V. Sumant, O. Auciello, O. Auciello, H.-C. Yuan, H.-C. Yuan, Z. Ma, Z. Ma, R. W. Carpick, R. W. Carpick, D. C. Mancini, D. C. Mancini, } "Large-area low-temperature ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films and integration with CMOS devices for monolithically integrated diamond MEMS/NEMS-CMOS systems", Proc. SPIE 7318, Micro- and Nanotechnology Sensors, Systems, and Applications, 731817 (11 May 2009); doi: 10.1117/12.822794; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.822794
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