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28 April 2009 Molecular imaging by confocal Raman mapping: enabling technologies for speed, multivariate analysis, and convenience
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Abstract
In spite of the fact that the original Raman microscope was designed in the early 1970's for Raman imaging, wide-spread practical use of the technology did not appear until the last 5 years. The instruments are smaller, faster, easier-to-use, promoting reports of a variety of interesting applications in fields as diverse as nanomaterials, pharmaceuticals, composites, semiconductors, bio-clinical studies, polymers, ceramics and glasses. While the information content in Raman analysis is quite high, the time to acquire an image has been a deterrent to its application. Recent innovations including Swift and DUO Scan have addressed and are addressing these issues. SWIFT (Scanning with Incredibly Fast Times) is a rapid CCD read-out technique that is based on the synchronization between the XY motion of the motorized or piezo stage and the CCD readout. DUO scanning uses a set of scanning mirrors above the microscope objective to raster rapidly the laser beam across a sample area. This can be used to create a "giant pixel" in the map without compromising the NA of the light collection, or to create a map with step sizes as small as 10nm. Swift, in combination with DUO scan, as been used to produce full spectral maps of pharmaceutical tablets in times as short as 10 minutes, something that was previously believed to be near impossible. Off-line analysis of such a map using multivariate techniques produces Raman images indicating the quality of component mixing, and also the presence of minor, difficult-to-detect components (such as Mgstearate in pharmaceutical tablets).
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Fran Adar, Eunah Lee, and Andrew Whitley "Molecular imaging by confocal Raman mapping: enabling technologies for speed, multivariate analysis, and convenience", Proc. SPIE 7319, Next-Generation Spectroscopic Technologies II, 731902 (28 April 2009); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.817728
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