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29 April 2009Stand-alone receiver module for near-infrared gated or nongated single-photon detection
A single photon receiver module combining an InGaAsP/InP avalanche photodiode with peak responsivity at 1064nm
and a CMOS integrated electronic circuit for operation in both gated and free running modes is presented. The standalone
module exhibits a single photon detection probability as high as 30% at 1064nm that is by far higher than silicon
devices. The dark count rate mean value over eight devices cooled down to -40°C is about 100Hz at 7.5% detection
probability and 1.2kHz at 30%. Dark count rate versus temperature measurements show that trap-assisted tunneling in
the InP multiplication layer progressively dominates the total dark count rate when the device is cooled down. At
medium cooling, the thermal generation in the absorber is the dominant mechanism. Afterpulsing rate is relatively high
when compared to silicon devices. However, the integration of a dedicated pulser in close-proximity with the APD
makes possible free-running operation. The timing resolution was measured at 430ps FWHM at 30% detection
probability. Though comparing favorably with silicon reach-through avalanche photodiodes, we believe that a large
uncertainty stands on this measurement. A timing resolution of less than 300ps is expected with the developed receiver
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A. Rochas, L. Monat, J. B. Page, M. Legré, D. Moraes, G. Ribordy, "Stand-alone receiver module for near-infrared gated or nongated single-photon detection," Proc. SPIE 7320, Advanced Photon Counting Techniques III, 73200X (29 April 2009); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.818429