This PDF file contains the front matter associated with SPIE Proceedings Volume 7327, including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction, and the Conference Committee listing.
The paper describes how military display users can benefit from emerging commercial market trends toward wideformat
and high-resolution displays. This emerging display format offers several human factors benefits and more
information along with high-definition sensor compatibility. The current commercial market trend highlights the growth
of wide formats, which may affect the future availability of standard format COTS displays. The vetronics display that is
being developed for the FCS family of combat vehicles is an example of a COTS wide-format, high-resolution display
that is ruggedized for the next generation of soldiers.
System concepts for network enabled image-based ISR (intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance) is the major mission
of Fraunhofer IITB's applied research in the area of defence and security solutions. For the TechDemo08 as part of the
NATO CNAD POW Defence against terrorism Fraunhofer IITB advanced a new multi display concept to handle the
shear amount and high complexity of ISR data acquired by networked, distributed surveillance systems with the
objective to support the generation of a common situation picture. Amount and Complexity of ISR data demands an
innovative man-machine interface concept for humans to deal with it. The IITB's concept is the Digital Map & Situation
Surface. This concept offers to the user a coherent multi display environment combining a horizontal surface for the
situation overview from the bird's eye view, an attached vertical display for collateral information and so-called foveatablets
as personalized magic lenses in order to obtain high resolved and role-specific information about a focused areaof-
interest and to interact with it. In the context of TechDemo08 the Digital Map & Situation Surface served as
workspace for team-based situation visualization and analysis. Multiple sea- and landside surveillance components were
connected to the system.
The DCM for the Drivers Vision Enhancer system is the display part of a relatively low cost IR imaging
system for land-vehicles. Recent changes to operational needs, associated with asymmetrical warfare have
added daytime operations to the uses for this mature system. This paper will discuss cost/performance
tradeoffs and provide thoughts for "DVE of the future" in light of these new operational needs for the system.
The military display market is analyzed in terms of all fully electronic and many electro-mechanical displays used on
combat platforms across all DOD Services. The military market for displays is defined by parameters such as active area,
bezel-to-bezel measurement and technology. Other characteristics such as luminance, contrast ratio, gray levels, resolution,
viewing angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system compatibility are noted. This study takes into
account all displays that are either installed or funded for installation. In some cases, planned displays are also included.
Display sizes having aggregate defense applications of 5,000 units or greater and having DOD applications across 10 or
more platform fleets, are tabulated. The issue of size commonality is addressed where distribution of active area across
platform fleets, individually, in groups of two through nine, and ten or more, is illustrated. Military displays are also
analyzed by technology, where total quantities of such displays are broken out into CRT, LCD, AMLCD, EM, LED,
Incandescent, Plasma and TFEL percentages. Custom, versus rugged commercial, versus commercial off-the-shelf
designs are contrasted. High and low information content designs are identified. Displays for several high-profile
military programs are discussed, to include both technical specifications and program history. This defense-wide study,
an up-date to our paper delivered April 2006, documents 642 weapons system platforms comprising 1,194,199 displays
in 1,217 sizes, of which 1,197 are direct-view and 20 are virtual-view. Defense display sizes range from 0.082 in..2 to
10,625 in.2 in 18 technologies, mostly flat panel display (FPD) technologies based on thin-film transistor active matrix
liquid crystal displays (TFT AM LCD), with cathode ray tube (CRT) second and dropping rapidly. This paper provides
an overview of the DOD display market, allowing government, academia and industry highlights of information provided in
the "Military Display Market: Fifth Comprehensive Edition" technical report.
Since their introduction a number of years ago, head up and helmet mounted displays have undergone
continuous and intensive development in aerospace applications.
To date, the designs have been performed using geometric optic design techniques and have progressed to the
point where very little further improvement in their characteristics is possible.
This paper describes a display realised by the use of new optical design techniques based on wave-guiding
principles that have enabled substantial further significant improvements to be made.
These improvements are not only in respect of size, weight and volume for a given optical performance, but also
in the optical characteristics that currently limit the usability of such displays in many applications.
Displays that have been realised and tested through these methods are described and their performance in
laboratory and flight trials discussed, together with considerations for further progress in their development.
The propagation of information operation technologies, with correspondingly vast amounts of complex network
information to be conveyed, significantly impacts operator workload. Information management research is rife with
efforts to develop schemes to aid operators to identify, review, organize, and retrieve the wealth of available data. Data
may take on such distinct forms as intelligence libraries, logistics databases, operational environment models, or network
topologies. Increased use of taxonomies and semantic technologies opens opportunities to employ network visualization
as a display mechanism for diverse information aggregations. The broad applicability of network visualizations is still
being tested, but in current usage, the complexity of densely populated abstract networks suggests the potential utility of
3D. Employment of 2.5D in network visualization, using classic perceptual cues, creates a 3D experience within a 2D
medium. It is anticipated that use of 3D perspective (2.5D) will enhance user ability to visually inspect large, complex,
multidimensional networks. Current research for 2.5D visualizations demonstrates that display attributes, including
color, shape, size, lighting, atmospheric effects, and shadows, significantly impact operator experience. However,
guidelines for utilization of attributes in display design are limited. This paper discusses pilot experimentation intended
to identify potential problem areas arising from these cues and determine how best to optimize perceptual cue settings.
Development of optimized design guidelines will ensure that future experiments, comparing network displays with other
visualizations, are not confounded or impeded by suboptimal attribute characterization. Current experimentation is
anticipated to support development of cost-effective, visually effective methods to implement 3D in military
The flow of information among our armed forces is greater than ever and the workload on the
warfighter is increasing. A novel, stereo-based 3D display has been developed to aid the warfighter
by displaying information in a more intuitive fashion by exploiting depth perception. The flat panel
display has a footprint consistent with current and future vehicles, unmanned systems, and aircraft
and is capable of displaying analog 3D video and OpenGL 3D imagery. A description of the display
will be given along with discussion of the applications evaluated to date.
With the changing character of warfare, information superiority is a high priority. Given the complexity of current and
future operating environments, analysts, strategists and planners need a multidimensional understanding of the
battlespace. Asymmetric warfare necessitates that our strategists look beyond targets-based operations, where we simply
identify and destroy enemy entities. Effects-based operations models the enemy as a system which reacts to our actions.
This requires the capability to predict the adversary response to a selected action. Actions may be diplomatic,
information, military or economic (DIME). Effects may be political, military, economic, social, information or
infrastructure (PMESII). Timing must be explicitly considered and effects dynamically assessed. Visualizations of
intelligence information are needed which will promote full understanding of all aspects of adversary strengths and
weaknesses by providing the extensive data about adversary forces, organic essentials, infrastructure, leadership,
population, and science and technology in an easily accessible and understandable format. This will enhance Effectsbased
operations, and therefore, the capability to predict and counter adversary courses of action. This paper outlines a
systems engineering approach to designing visualizations which convey the multidimensional information to decision
makers. Visualization issues inherent in understanding the multidimensional operational environment will be discussed.
The evolution to 3D content is considered to be the next quantum leap in the movie industry, and is currently
taking place. The prospect of the home entertainment industry adopting 3D is causing display manufacturers
to develop 3D compatible products. In the past, 3D displays have often been limited by poor image quality.
The current generation of 3D displays can have image quality that approaches that of their 2D counterparts.
3D content has found its way to the cinema and is seeking a way into the home, but will it have a place in the
military environment? This paper discusses the current status of 3D display technology and its suitability to
the military ground mobile environment. It includes an introduction to 3D visualization and examines issues
such as implementation, image quality, and human factors.
Field sequential color (FSC) liquid crystal displays (LCD) using a high speed LCD mode and an R, G, B LED backlight,
offers a significant potential for lower power consumption, higher resolution, higher brightness and lower cost compared
to the conventional R, G, B color filter based LCD, and thus is of interest to various military and avionic display
applications. While the DLP projection TVs, and Camcorder LCD view finder type displays using the FSC technology
have been introduced in the consumer market, large area direct view LCD displays based on the FSC technology have
not reached the commercial market yet. Further, large area FSC LCDs can present unique operational issues in avionic
and military environments particularly for operation in a broad temperature range and with respect to its susceptibility
for the color breakup image artifact. In this paper we will review the current status of the FSC LCD technology and then
discuss the results of our efforts on the FSC LCD technology evaluation for the avionic applications.
We report on the next generation of transmissive liquid crystal
micro-display technology based on single-crystal Si
backplane. The demand for ultra-high resolutions in combination with optimization of size, weight, and power are
driving Kopin AMLCD to resolutions as high as 2k x 2k. Several key developments are driving the aggressive
development of higher density, lower power AMLCD displays. We will review display performance improvements
resulting from a transition to 8" Si wafer processing, including smaller design rules and multi-level metal processing. In
addition, we will describe new technologies enabling ultra-low power consumption, wide operating temperature range,
and "Instant-On" display performance at temperatures as low as
-40° C. We will discuss how these technologies are
combined in advanced micro-displays, which are enabling the next generation of ruggedized imaging applications.
To improve the local situational awareness (LSA) of personnel in light or heavily armored vehicles, most military
organizations recognize the need to equip their fleets with
high-resolution digital video systems. Several related upgrade
programs are already in progress and, almost invariably, COTS IP/Ethernet is specified as the underlying transport
mechanism. The high bandwidths, long reach, networking flexibility, scalability, and affordability of IP/Ethernet make it
an attractive choice. There are significant technical challenges, however, in achieving high-performance, real-time video
connectivity over the IP/Ethernet platform.
As an early pioneer in performance-oriented video systems based on IP/Ethernet, Pleora Technologies has developed
core expertise in meeting these challenges and applied a singular focus to innovating within the required framework. The
company's field-proven iPORTTM Video Connectivity Solution is deployed successfully in thousands of real-world
applications for medical, military, and manufacturing operations. Pleora's latest innovation is eDisplayTM, a smallfootprint,
low-power, highly efficient IP engine that acquires video from an Ethernet connection and sends it directly to a
standard HDMI/DVI monitor for real-time viewing. More costly PCs are not required.
This paper describes Pleora's eDisplay IP Engine in more detail. It demonstrates how - in concert with other elements of
the end-to-end iPORT Video Connectivity Solution - the engine can be used to build standards-based, in-vehicle video
systems that increase the safety and effectiveness of military personnel while fully leveraging the advantages of the lowcost
COTS IP/Ethernet platform.
The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) completed flight testing with an airframe-referenced localized audio
cueing display. The purpose was to assess its affect on pilot performance, workload, and situational awareness in two
scenarios simulating single-pilot general aviation operations under instrument meteorological conditions. Each scenario
consisted of 12 test procedures conducted under simulated instrument meteorological conditions, half with the cue off,
and half with the cue on. Simulated aircraft malfunctions were strategically inserted at critical times during each test
procedure. Ten pilots participated in the study; half flew a moderate workload scenario consisting of point to point
navigation and holding pattern operations and half flew a high workload scenario consisting of non precision approaches
and missed approach procedures. Flight data consisted of aircraft and navigation state parameters, NASA Task Load
Index (TLX) assessments, and post-flight questionnaires. With localized cues there was slightly better pilot technical
performance, a reduction in workload, and a perceived improvement in situational awareness. Results indicate that an
airframe-referenced auditory display has utility and pilot acceptance in general aviation operations.
As polymeric filters are becoming more common, the mechanical and thermal limitations of the materials are often
overlooked, with designers focusing solely on the optical and spectral characteristics. This paper addresses the
environmental and optical characteristics of various types of polymeric materials. The materials are qualified and
quantified in relation to Ground, Air and Sea specification standards.
We present a novel device for fast, reproducible and low contrast minimum resolvable contrast (MRC) measurements
based on an OLED microdisplay. The high intensity resolution and luminosity of the employed display allows the
generation of target contrasts well below 0.5 % at brightness levels of more than 500 nits. Using a 4 m collimator we
were able to perform an MRC measurement over the full relevant spatial frequency range of a recently developed
terrestrial TV camera system. The small pixel pitch of the display allowed us to use a short collimator length and to
perform MRC measurements with high frequency resolution.
Iris-C is an image codec designed for streaming video applications that demand low bit rate, low latency, lossless image
compression. To achieve compression and low latency the codec features the discrete wavelet transform, Exp-Golomb
coding, and online processes that construct dynamic models of the input video. Like H.264 and Dirac, the Iris-C codec
accepts input video from both the YUV and YCOCG colour spaces, but the system can also operate on Bayer RAW data
read directly from an image sensor. Testing shows that the Iris-C codec is competitive with the Dirac low delay syntax
codec which is typically regarded as the state-of-the-art low latency, lossless video compressor.
Once considered too processing-intense for general utility, application of the third dimension to convey complex
information is facilitated by the recent proliferation of technological advancements in computer processing, 3D displays,
and 3D perspective (2.5D) renderings within a 2D medium. The profusion of complex and rapidly-changing dynamic
information being conveyed in operational environments has elevated interest in possible military applications of 3D
technologies. 3D can be a powerful mechanism for clearer information portrayal, facilitating rapid and accurate
identification of key elements essential to mission performance and operator safety. However, implementation of 3D
within legacy systems can be costly, making integration prohibitive. Therefore, identifying which tasks may benefit from
3D or 2.5D versus simple 2D visualizations is critical. Unfortunately, there is no "bible" of human factors guidelines for
usability optimization of 2D, 2.5D, or 3D visualizations nor for determining which display best serves a particular
application. Establishing such guidelines would provide an invaluable tool for designers and operators. Defining issues
common to each will enhance design effectiveness. This paper presents the results of an extensive review of open source
literature addressing 3D information displays, with particular emphasis on comparison of true 3D with 2D and 2.5D
representations and their utility for military tasks. Seventy-five papers are summarized, highlighting militarily relevant
applications of 3D visualizations and 2.5D perspective renderings. Based on these findings, human factors guidelines for
when and how to use these visualizations, along with recommendations for further research are discussed.
In many command centers, operators are required to monitor multiple displays and perform several complex data tasks
simultaneously. Multiple display systems may include two or more individual desktop monitors or the utilization of a
large, shared, wall display configuration. Using multi- or shared display systems can be beneficial in alleviating
individual desktop clutter as well as providing access to task-relevant information and facilitating situation awareness,
but only if the operators know the information is available. Using visual alerts is one way to inform operators that
updated or new information has been added to a shared display. The present study investigated the placement of visual
alerts in a multi-display configuration. Ten participants performed spatial tasks on either a desktop monitor or a large
wall display. Participants concurrently monitored both displays for a visual alert. The alert was presented on either the
same display as the task (task/alert same) or the non-task display (task/alert different). The dependent measure was the
response time to perceive the visual alert. Overall, participants responded faster when the visual alert was presented on
the non-task display, but this effect depended on the location of the central task (desk, wall) and proximate location of
the alert (top or bottom of the display). Limitations of the present study and future research considerations will be