The Space and Naval Warfare (SPAWAR) Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) has a long and extensive history in
unmanned systems research and development, starting with undersea applications in the 1960s and expanding into
ground and air systems in the 1980s. In the ground domain, we are addressing force-protection scenarios using large
unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) and fixed sensors, and simultaneously pursuing tactical and explosive ordnance
disposal (EOD) operations with small man-portable robots. Technology thrusts include improving robotic intelligence
and functionality, autonomous navigation and world modeling in urban environments, extended operational range of
small teleoperated UGVs, enhanced human-robot interaction, and incorporation of remotely operated weapon systems.
On the sea surface, we are pushing the envelope on dynamic obstacle avoidance while conforming to established
nautical rules-of-the-road. In the air, we are addressing cooperative behaviors between UGVs and small vertical-takeoff-
and-landing unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). Underwater applications involve very shallow water mine
countermeasures, ship hull inspection, oceanographic data collection, and deep ocean access. Specific technology thrusts
include fiber-optic communications, adaptive mission controllers, advanced navigation techniques, and concepts of
operations (CONOPs) development. This paper provides a review of recent accomplishments and current status of a
number of projects in these areas.