27 April 2009 Water quality mapping using Landsat TM imagery
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Environmental monitoring through the method of traditional ship sampling is time consuming and requires a high survey cost. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of Landsat TM imagery for total suspended solids (TSS) mapping using a newly developed algorithm over Penang Island. The study area is the seawater region around Penang Island, Malaysia. Water samples were collected during a 3-hour period simultaneously with the satellite image acquisition and later analyzed in the laboratory above the study area. The samples locations were determined using a handheld GPS. The satellite image was geometrically corrected using the second order polynomial transformation. The satellite image also was atmospheric corrected by using ATCOR2 image processing software. The digital numbers for each band corresponding to the sea-truth locations were extracted and then converted into reflectance values for calibration of the water quality algorithm. The proposed algorithm is based on the reflectance model that is a function of the inherent optical properties of water, which can be related to its constituent's concentrations. The generated algorithm was developed for three visible wavelenghts, red, green and blue for this study. Results indicate that the proposed developed algorithm was superior based on the correlation coefficient (R) and root-mean-square deviation (RMS) values. Finally the proposed algorithm was used for TSS mapping at Penang Island, Malaysia. The generated TSS map was colour-coded for visual interpretation and image smoothing was performed on the map to remove random noise. This preliminary study has produced a promising result. This study indicates that the empirical algorithm is suitable for TSS mapping around Penang Island by using satellite Landsat TM data.
© (2009) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
H. S. Lim, H. S. Lim, M. Z. MatJafri, M. Z. MatJafri, K. Abdullah, K. Abdullah, A. N. Alias, A. N. Alias, C. J. Wong, C. J. Wong, M. R. Mustapha-Rosli, M. R. Mustapha-Rosli, N. Mohd Saleh, N. Mohd Saleh, } "Water quality mapping using Landsat TM imagery", Proc. SPIE 7341, Visual Information Processing XVIII, 734107 (27 April 2009); doi: 10.1117/12.820308; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.820308

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