29 April 2009 Emergency response networks for disaster monitoring and detection from space
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Numerous man-made and natural disasters have stricken mankind since the beginning of the new millennium. The scale and impact of such disasters often prevent the collection of sufficient data for an objective assessment and coordination of timely rescue and relief missions on the ground. As a potential solution to this problem, in recent years constellations of Earth observation small satellites and in particular micro-satellites (<100 kg) in low Earth orbit have emerged as an efficient platform for reliable disaster monitoring. The main task of the Earth observation satellites is to capture images of the Earth surface using various techniques. For a large number of applications the resulting delay between image capture and delivery is not acceptable, in particular for rapid response remote sensing aiming at disaster monitoring and detection. In such cases almost instantaneous data availability is a strict requirement to enable an assessment of the situation and instigate an adequate response. Examples include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding, forest fires and oil spills. The proposed solution to this issue are low-cost networked distributed satellite systems in low Earth orbit capable of connecting to terrestrial networks and geostationary Earth orbit spacecraft in real time. This paper discusses enabling technologies for rapid response disaster monitoring and detection from space such as very small satellite design, intersatellite communication, intelligent on-board processing, distributed computing and bio-inspired routing techniques.
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Tanya Vladimirova, Martin N. Sweeting, Ivan Vitanov, Valentin I. Vitanov, "Emergency response networks for disaster monitoring and detection from space", Proc. SPIE 7347, Evolutionary and Bio-Inspired Computation: Theory and Applications III, 73470N (29 April 2009); doi: 10.1117/12.820772; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.820772

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