Maskless pattern generation using probe-forming electron beam systems has been exploited to great advantage for
several decades in lithographic processes of both mask making and direct write applications used in the production of
integrated circuits (ICs). The key limitation of these e-beam lithography systems has been and still is throughput. More
efficient exposure techniques using shaped beams to project a multitude of pixels simultaneously have improved
productivity but were unable to keep pace with Moore's Law and the steady increase of pattern densities. The recent
development of massively parallel pixel projection has opened new prospects for electron beam lithography. The early
proof-of-concept demonstrations of these techniques are the main subject of the paper.