17 June 2009 Optical classification for quality and defect analysis of train brakes
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In this paper we present an optical measurement system approach for quality analysis of brakes which are used in high-speed trains. The brakes consist of the so called brake discs and pads. In a deceleration process the discs will be heated up to 500°C. The quality measure is based on the fact that the heated brake discs should not generate hot spots inside the brake material. Instead, the brake disc should be heated homogeneously by the deceleration. Therefore, it makes sense to analyze the number of hot spots and their relative gradients to create a quality measure for train brakes. In this contribution we present a new approach for a quality measurement system which is based on an image analysis and classification of infra-red based heat images. Brake images which are represented in pseudo-color are first transformed in a linear grayscale space by a hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) space. This transform is necessary for the following gradient analysis which is based on gray scale gradient filters. Furthermore, different features based on Haralick's measures are generated from the gray scale and gradient images. A following Fuzzy-Pattern-Classifier is used for the classification of good and bad brakes. It has to be pointed out that the classifier returns a score value for each brake which is between 0 and 100% good quality. This fact guarantees that not only good and bad bakes can be distinguished, but also their quality can be labeled. The results show that all critical thermal patterns of train brakes can be sensed and verified.
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Stefan Glock, Stefan Glock, Stefan Hausmann, Stefan Hausmann, Sebastian Gerke, Sebastian Gerke, Alexander Warok, Alexander Warok, Peter Spiess, Peter Spiess, Stefan Witte, Stefan Witte, Volker Lohweg, Volker Lohweg, "Optical classification for quality and defect analysis of train brakes", Proc. SPIE 7389, Optical Measurement Systems for Industrial Inspection VI, 73891Y (17 June 2009); doi: 10.1117/12.827457; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.827457

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