Site specific, in situ techniques such as X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Raman spectroscopy are commonly used to
identify pigments on illuminated manuscripts. With both techniques, spectra are usually acquired on visually identified
sites thought to be representative of the pigments and mixtures used for the illumination. Such visual inspection may not
always ensure an adequate representation of the pigment diversity. Here we report on the application of multispectral
(MSI) visible/infrared reflectance and luminescence imaging spectroscopy, along with fiber optics reflectance
spectroscopy (FORS) to help determine and map the primary pigments in a late 14th century miniature on vellum,
attributed to Niccolo da Bologna and representing the birth of John the Baptist. XRF analyses of visually selected sites
found elements consistent with azurite, ultramarine, vermillion, lead white, "mosaic gold" and yellow earth pigments.
Visible/infrared FORS analyses confirmed these assignments and showed evidence for the use of organic dyes. The
spectral analysis of the MSI-reflectance images gave distribution maps for these pigments (i.e., regions of azurite,
ultramarine, vermillion) along with some indication of pigment layering not identified visually. The luminescence image
gave a probable map of the organic dye(s). Images acquired in the near- and shortwave-infrared (NIR and SWIR, 750 to
2400 nm) revealed preparatory sketches and illumination techniques. These results show, like those of a prior study
carried out on another 14th century Italian miniature, that the combination of low light multi-spectral imaging
spectroscopy with FORS provides improved in situ mapping and identification of pigments on illuminated manuscripts.